- People's Republic of China proclaimed, 1949.
- British naturalist Charles Darwin returns to England after spending 5 years surveying the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans, 1836. Infomation gathered in the expedition is used in his book, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
- Francis of Assisi died, 1226.
- Sputnik I launched, 1957.
- Constitution of Fifth French Republic, 1958.
- William Tyndale burned at the stake, 1536.
- Battle of Lepanto, 1571.
Archbishop Laud born, 1573.
- First Balkan War, 1912.
- Saint Saens born, 1835.
Boer War begins, 1899.
- Charles Martel defeats Saracens at Tours, 732.
Chinese Revolution begins, 1911.
- Huldreich Zwingli killed in battle, 1531.
Second Vatican Council opens, 1962.
- Christopher Columbus touches land at Bahamas, 1492.
- Emperor Claudius poisoned, 54.
Joachim Murat, King of Two Sicilies, executed, 1815.
- Battle of Hastings, 1066.
- Hernan Cortes named governor of New Spain, 1522.
Ether first publicly demonstrated as anaesthetic, 1846.
- Marie Antoinette guillotined, 1793.
Karol Wojityla (Pope John Paul II) elected as first pope from Eastern Europe, 1978.
- General Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 1777.
Death of Frederic Chopin, 1849.
- Edict of Nantes revoked by Louis XIV, 1685.
- Charles Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, 1781.
Napoleon begins retreat from Moscow, 1812.
- Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy, 1922.
- Battle of Trafalgar, 1805.
- Peter I proclaimed Emperor of all the Russias, 1721.
Franz Liszt born, 1811.
- American stock market crashed, 1929.
Hungarian Revolt began, 1956.
- Treaty of Westphalia signed, 1648.
- Battle of Agincourt, 1415.
- Mutiny on the Battleship Potemkin, 1905.
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, born, 1919.
- Michael Servetus burned at the stake, 1553.
Britain annexes Kimberly diamond fields, 1871.
- Constantine the Great's victory at the Milvian Bridge, 312.
Statue of Liberty dedicated, 1886.
- Sir Walter Raleigh executed, 1618.
- Richard Sheridan born, 1751.
- Luther posts the 95 theses at Augsburg, 1517.
This Month in History